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Literature Reviews 

Here are a few useful literature reviews which contain:

  • reviews of CBD & its interactions with the endocannabinoid system. 

  • an overview of the health benefits of CBD - most of what we know about the medical and health benefits of cannabis relates to humans and not animals – BUT many of the biological interactions occur across the animal species. 

  • summaries of what we do know about cannabis as it relates to animals

Hartsel, J.A., Boyar, K., Pham, A., Silver, R.J., Makriyannis, A., 2019, ‘Cannabis in veterinary medicine: Cannabinoid therapies for animals. In: Gupta, R.C., Srivastava, A., Lall, R. (Eds.), Nutraceuticals in Veterinary Medicine. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 121–155


What the chapter covers:

  • literature review of CBD, its interactions with the endocannabinoid system, and how animal species interact with various formulations and cannabis treatments.

  • a brief overview of the biology, chemistry, and history of cannabis ( as relevant to animals).

  • discussion of the pharmacologically active components 


Silver RJ 2019, ‘The Endocannabinoid System of Animals’, Animals (Basel), vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 686

  • Overview of the endocannabinoid system in animals,

  • literature review of the relationship between the endocannabinoid system and specific diseases in animals.

  • Safety of CBD in dogs

Mechoulam, R 2013, ‘The Endocannabinoid System and the Brain’, Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 64, pp. 21–47

  • Summary of the endocannabinoid system. 

  • Highlights the recent studies into CB1 and CB2 receptors.


CB1 receptors:

  • expressed mainly in the CNS (especially sensory and motor regions) but also in numerous peripheral organs found primarily on central and peripheral neurons in the presynapse. These locations facilitate their inhibition of neurotransmitter release.


CB2 receptors

  • expressed mainly in the cells of the immune system + throughout the CNS though at lower levels than those of the CB1 receptors..

  • part of a general protective system

Andre CM, Hausman J-F & Guerriero, G 2016, ‘Cannabis sativa: The Plant of the Thousand and One Molecules’, Frontiers of Plant Science, vol. 7, art. 19.

  • Literature review

Howlett AC, Barth F, Bonner TI, Cabral G, Casellas P, et al. 2002, ‘Classification of cannabinoid receptors’, Pharmacological Review, vol. 54, pp. 161–202

  • detailed review on the pharmacology of cannabinoids

Rupasinghe, HPV, Davis, A, Kumar, SK, Murray, B & Zheljazkov, VD 2020, ‘Industrial Hemp (Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa) as an Emerging Source for Value-Added Functional Food Ingredients and Nutraceuticals’, Molecules, vol. 25, pp 4078

  • Review

  • the composition of hemp (both the major nutritive components and the bioactive phytochemicals), as well as their collective health benefits.

  • endocannabinoid system

  • pharmacology or interaction of THC and CBD with the endocannabinoid system

  • Health effects of CBD: cardiovascular health, cancers, CNS diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatitis, mental health, pain management

  • Extraction method

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