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CBD Pharmacokinetics 

Delivery methods

Deabold, KA, Schwark, WS, Wolf, L & Wakshlag, JJ 2019, ‘Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Preliminary Safety Assessment with Use of CBD-Rich Hemp Nutraceutical in Healthy Dogs and Cats, Animals, vol. 9, pp. 832


Aim: 12 week dose of full spectrum CBD to show short pharmacokinetic half-lives in dogs and cats



  • Animals: 8 Beagle dogs, 8 DSH cats

  • Dosed with 2 mg/kg of full spectrum CBD orally BID for 12 weeks



  • Mean maximum concentration (Cmax) of 301 ng/mL and 43 ng/mL for dogs and cats, respectively

  • Time to maximal concentration (Tmax) of 1.4 h and 2 h, for dogs and cats, respectively.

  • Serum chemistry and CBC results showed no clinically significant alterations (no values exceeded the reference ranges)

    • EXCEPT one cat showed a persistent rise in ALT above the reference range for the duration of the trial.

Bartner, L.R.; McGrath, S.; Rao, S.; Hyatt, L.K.; Wittenburg, L.A. 2018, ‘Pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol administered by 3 delivery methods at 2 different dosages to healthy dogs’, Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 82, pp. 178–183


Design: randomised controlled trial

Aim: to determine the pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol (CBD) in healthy dogs.


Intervention: 30 healthy research dogs, randomly allocated to 3 groups, and given either:  (1) oral microencapsulated oil beads (2) oral CBD-infused oil, or (3) CBD-infused transdermal cream, at a dose of 75 mg or 150 mg q12h for 6 weeks.



  • Pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated that the CBD-infused oil formulation resulted in higher maximal concentrations (Cmax) and systemic exposure than the other 2 formulations

  • Exposure is dose-proportional

  • The oral CBD-infused oil provides the most favourable pharmacokinetic profile.

  • the CBD-infused transdermal cream did not reach similar plasma concentrations as the oral formulations.

    • since CBD is highly lipophilic, it accumulates within the stratum corneum and does not penetrate deeper skin layers

Polidoro D, Temmerman R, Devreese M, Charalambous M, Ham LV, Cornelis I, Broeckx BJG, Mandigers PJJ, Fischer A, Storch J & Bhatti SFM 2022, ‘Pharmacokinetics of Cannabidiol Following Intranasal, Intrarectal, and Oral Administration in Healthy Dogs’, Frontiers in Veterinary Science, vol.  9, art. 899940


AIM: to determine the pharmacokinetic behaviour of CBD after a single dose via intranasal (IN) vs intrarectal (IR) vs oral (PO) administration route (PO)



  • six healthy Beagle dogs age 3–8 years old

  • Each dog underwent the same protocol but received CBD through a different administration route.

  • Standardized dosages applied for IN, IR and PO were 20, 100, and 100mg, respectively.


Key findings:

  • Plasma CBD concentrations after IR administration were below the limit of quantification.

  • The mean area under the curve (AUC) after IN and PO administration was 61 and 1,376 ng/mL∗h, respectively.

  • The maximal plasma CBD concentration (Cmax) after IN and PO CBD administration was 28 and 217 ng/mL reached after 0.5 and 3.5 h (Tmax), respectively.

  • Significant differences between IN and PO administration were found in the Tmax (p=0.04).

  • Higher AUC and Cmax were achieved with 100mg PO compared to 20mg IN, but no significant differences were found when area under the curve (p = 0.09) and Cmax (p = 0.44) were normalized to 1mg dosages.



  • IN administration of CBD resulted in faster absorption when compared to PO administration.

  • BUT PO remains the most favourable route for CBD delivery due to its more feasible administration.

  • The IR administration route is not advised for clinical application.

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